Bacteria are an order of magnitude smaller than protozoa measuring in the 0.5 - 2 micron range. The most well-known bacteria are E. coli; others include Leptospira (which causes Leptospirosis), Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella. Bacteria aren't as hearty, surviving in water only for weeks instead of months. However, unlike protozoa and viruses, which require a host to multiply, some bacteria can grow in water and so can be found in higher numbers than protozoa and viruses. Bacteria, like protozoa, are often carried by both animals and humans. Because of this, many water sources are contaminated with bacteria. Beware especially of sources near agricultural operations.
First, it will usually take more than one organism to make you sick—around 10 for protozoa and viruses and 10 to 1,000,000 for bacteria depending on the species. The onset of symptoms can start anywhere from 10 hours to several weeks from the point of infection depending on the type and amount ingested, and constitution of the individual. Symptoms can range from nothing to diarrhea, abdominal cramps and pain, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, fever, fatigue, headache, chills, loss of appetite, and, in the case of hepatitis, dark urine and jaundice. Symptoms usually dissipate in a couple of days or weeks, again depending on the three elements above. Healthy adults will generally knock the illness without needing medical attention and without lasting effects. However, infants, young children, elderly, pregnant, and immune-compromised individuals are at higher risk of needing medical attention or having complications from an illness. Your location—a remote basecamp in Pakistan or a day hike close to home— will play a key role in the severity of your illness, should you become infected. For more information on diseases caused by specific pathogens, please visit www.cdc.gov.
The main difference lies in the level of protection they provide. Generally speaking, a water filter is designed to remove waterborne protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. A water purifier is designed to combat all three classes of microbes, including viruses.
Because North American backcountries are regarded as low-risk for viruses, filters typically offer a sufficient water treatment method. In places heavily trafficked by humans or where sanitation systems are poor, the risk for viruses increases. In these areas, such as in developing countries, a purifier is recommended.
Additionally, filters physically remove matter and microbes from the water. In contrast, a "purifier" can employ a variety of methods to do so, from physically removing the contaminants to disinfecting the water of them, through UV or chemical treatments.
Why the two treatment device options? The reason is, viruses are just too small for filters to catch. Far smaller than protozoa or bacteria, viruses slip through the technologies used in backpacking filters. Traditionally, UV light, chemical treatments or boiling were required to deactivate viruses by scrambling their DNA or killing them. Today, new advancements in mechanical pump purifiers provide a convenient option to physically remove viruses quickly and easily.
A filter actually removes matter and microbes from the water while a "purifier" can employ a variety of methods to disinfect the water (such as UV or MIOX® or combination system like the MSR Sweetwater® purifier). A purifier must meet the EPA Guide Standard for Testing Microbiological Purifiers, which requires inactivation of all three classes of microbes: protozoa, bacteria and viruses. Filters in general claim to remove only protozoa and bacteria, making it adequate for most travel in developed countries. Some filters alone can qualify as a purifier, but since they are filtering to such a small pore size, they tend to clog quickly. Essentially the classification as a "purifier" means that the device must be capable of inactivating viruses, as well as protozoa and bacteria.
To decide whether you need a filter or a purifier, two important factors must be evaluated: water sources and susceptibility.
When evaluating water sources it is important to keep the following in mind: In general, protozoa and bacteria infect both animals and humans and are transmitted to water sources by animal and human waste. In contrast, waterborne viruses are species-specific and therefore transmitted to water sources by human waste alone. As a rule of thumb, remote areas with few people require (at least) filtration while popular areas with many human visitors require purification. If traveling in developing countries with poor sanitation, purification will be your safest choice.
What is California Proposition 65?
Passed into law by California’s voters in 1986, Prop 65 is intended to help California residents make informed decisions about the products they buy.
The law states that companies selling products in California must display a warning when the product contains one or more of the approximately 800 chemicals known to the state of California to cause cancer and/or reproductive harm.
Why has MSR placed a Proposition 65 label on some of its products?
By placing the Prop 65 warning on a product, MSR acknowledges that it contains one or more of the chemicals on the Prop 65 list, however the listed chemical may be well within the “no significant risk” range. MSR has not evaluated every product but out of caution, we include the warning.
Are consumers who use an MSR product with a Proposition 65 label at risk?
The label simply indicates that the product contains the chemical and because of that, there is a potential for exposure to it.
The California government states: “The fact that a product bears a Proposition 65 warning does not mean by itself that the product is unsafe.” The government explains, “You could think of Proposition 65 more as a ‘right to know’ law than a pure product safety law.”
For example, some MSR stoves contain brass. Exposure to brass is not itself harmful. However lead is a component of brass and should the brass be disrupted, a user could potentially come in contact with the lead. While the lead levels fall below the “no significant risk” range, MSR is still required to acknowledge its presence.
To learn more about California’s Prop 65, please visit: https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/general-info/proposition-65-plain-language
What types of chemicals are on the Proposition 65 list?
The Prop 65 list contains a wide range of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals that are known to California to cause cancer or birth defects or other reproductive harm. They may be additives or ingredients in pesticides, common household products, food, drugs, dyes or solvents. They may be used in manufacturing and construction, or be the byproducts of chemical processes. Proposition 65 requires that the Governor of California maintain and publish a list of these harmful chemicals, and update it annually.
According to the state of California:
A chemical is listed if it has been classified as a reproductive toxicant or carcinogen by an "authoritative" organization on the subject. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the National Toxicology Program, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer are considered authoritative for carcinogens. For reproductive toxicants, appropriate authorities include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chemicals will also be listed if they are required to be labeled or identified as a carcinogen or as a reproductive toxicant by an agency of the state or federal government.